Glossary & Errata

GLOSSARY

Academic State Symphony Orchestra (or State Academic Symphony Orchestra of the Russian Federation): Founded in 1936 by Alexander Gauk as the USSR State Symphony Orchestra, the ensemble made its greatest impact under Evgeny Svetlanov (principal conductor, 1965-2000). The orchestra primarily performed in the Bolshoi (Great) Hall of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Afanasiev, Boris: Moscow-based French horn player; principal player, Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR.

Alexandrov, Grigori (1903-1983): Soviet film director.

All-Union Committee on Artistic Affairs (or Ministry of Culture): Soviet governmental agency that oversaw all artistic affairs and organizations, and engaged in and enforced Soviet era artistic policy.

Andreyev, Andrei (1895-1971): Soviet politician.

Anosov, Nikolai (1900-1962): Soviet conductor and composer. Professor of conducting at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Married soprano Natalya Rozhdestvenskaya; was father of conductor Gennady Rozhdestvensky.

Apollinaire, Guillaume (1880-1918): French poet, playwright, and art critic. His brief career influenced the development of such artistic movements as Futurism, Cubism, Dadaism, and Surrealism, and the legend of his personality—bohemian artist, raconteur, gourmand, soldier—became the model for avant-garde deportment. 

Apollon: Silver-Era journal, founded in 1909.

Apollon Journal

Apostolov, Pavel (1905-1969): Russian musicologist and military bandmaster. For more information on Apostolov, see Laurel Fay’s Shostakovich: A Life.

April Resolution: April 23, 1932 became known as the “April Resolution” because it marked the dissolution of existing literary and art organizations.

Arensky, Anton (1861-1906): Russian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher. Himself a student of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Arensky taught Alexander Scriabin, Sergei Rachmaninov, and Reinhold Glière.

Arkadiev, Mikhail (1896-1937): Manager of the Moscow Art Theatre. Arrested and shot under Stalin’s orders.

Asafiev, Boris (1884-1949): Russian-Soviet music critic, composer, musicologist. Wrote under the pseudonym Igor Glebov. Founding member of the Association of Contemporary Music (ASM, or Assotsiatsiya Sovremennoy Muzyki).

Aseyev, Nikolai (1889-1963): Russian lyric poet.

Ashkenazy, Vladimir (b. 1937): Russian pianist. Studied with Lev Oborin at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Association of Contemporary Music (ASM). Competing organization to the Russian Association of Proletariat Musicians (RAPM, or Rossiyskaya Assotsiatsiya Proletarskikh Muzykantov). For detailed information on the ASM and the RAPM, see Music and Soviet Power, 1917-1932 by Marina Frolova-Walker and Jonathan Walker.

Auric, Georges (1899-1983): French composer, considered part of the group “Les Six.”

Babajanian, Arno (1921-1983): Armenian composer. Piano student of Elena Fabianovna Gnesina.

Bakhtin, Mikhail (1895-1975): Russian philosopher and literary critic.

Bakst, Leon (1866–1924): Russian painter. Became theater designer (sets and costumes) for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes.

Design for Paris premiere of “L’Après-midi d’un Faune”

Balakirev, Miliy (1837-1910): Russian composer. Belonged to school of Russian composition known as “The Mighty Five” (a group of Russian nationalist composers in the second half of the 19th century that, along with Balakirev, included César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Alexander Borodin, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov).

Baranov, Mark: Jewish-Russian violinist. Previous member and co-concertmaster of Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR under Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Currently a member of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Premiered, among other important works, Messiaen’s Quatour pour la fin du temps in the USSR.

Barenboim, Lev (1906-1985): Soviet pianist and musicologist. Professor of the St. Petersburg (Leningrad) Conservatory.

Bartok, Bela (1881-1945): Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, and pianist.

Bashanov, Boris (1900-1982): Member of the Soviet Politburo. Personal secretary to Stalin. Defected to France in 1928.

Bashkirov, Dmitri (b. 1931): Georgian-Russian pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Batitsky, Pavel (1910-1984): Soviet Red Army marshal. Killed Lavrenti Beria.

Baudrier, Yves (1906-1988): French composer. Along with Messiaen, Jean-Yves Daniel-Lesur, and André Jolivet founded La Jeune France.

“bedazzlement”: Term used by Messiaen to describe experiences (particularly musical) that take listeners “beyond, towards the invisible and unspeakable” … “by means of sound-color.” By way of example, see La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ.

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827): German composer and pianist. Works mentioned in book: Concerto no. 5 in E-flat Major; Moonlight Sonata; Sonata no. 4;Sonata no. 29 “Hammerklavier”; Septet in E-flat Major; Variations in E-flat Major; Variations in F Major.

Belinsky, Vissarion (1811-1848): Literary and social critic.

Belyayev, Viktor (1888-1968): Soviet musicologist and critic, editor of ASM’s magazine, Contemporary Music.

Belyi, Viktor (1904-1983): Russian composer, member of the RAPM.

Benois, Aleksandr (1870-1960): Russian artist. Along with Bakst, became a theater designer (sets and costumes) for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes.

Baba Yaga from Alphabet in Pictures illustrated by Benois.

Berdyaev, Nikolai (1874-1948): Russian (political and theological) philosopher. He writes: “Freedom is  my independence and the defining of my self from the inside, and freedom is my creative force, not the choice between the good and evil that I am faced with, but my creation of good and evil.  The situation of choice itself can cause the feeling of oppression, indecisiveness, or even the feeling of absence of freedom. The liberation comes, when the choice is made, and I move along my creative path.”

Beria, Lavrentiy (1899-1953): Soviet politician, supporter of Stalin. Convicted of high treason and executed.

Berlioz, Hector (1803-1869): French Romantic composer. Works mentioned in book: Symphonie fantastiqueHarold en Italie, and Romeo et Juliet.

Berman, Boris (b. 1948): Russian pianist. Student of Lev Oborin at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Berman, Lazar (1930-2005): Russian-Soviet pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser.

Blazhkov, Igor (b. 1936): Ukrainian conductor, performer of contemporary music, including Messiaen’s music in Kiev.

Blok, Aleksandr (1880-1921): Russian lyric poet. Work mentioned in book: “I want to live.”

Bolshevik (October) Revolution: 1917, inspired by Vladimir Lenin. Inauguration of the Soviet regime.

Bolshoi Theater (Moscow): Home of the Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera.

Moscow Theatre

Boulez, Pierre (1925-2016): French composer and conductor. Student of Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. Premiered some of Messiaen’s works, including Sept haïkaï and Couleurs de la cité celeste.

Breton, André (1896-1966): French surrealist writer and poet.

Brezhnev, Leonid (1906-1982): Soviet politician. Led the USSR from 1964-1982.  For more information on Brezhnev, see William Tompson’s The Soviet Union under Brezhnev.

Brik, Osip (1888-1945): Russian writer and critic. Married to Lilya Brik, lover of poet Vladimir Mayakovsky.

Bukharin, Nikolai (1888-1938): Soviet politician and Bolshevik. Executed in 1938. For an account of Bukharin’s life, see Paul Gregory’s Politics, Murder, and Love in Stalin’s Kremlin: The Story of  Nikolai Bukharin and Anna Larina.

Bulgakov, Sergei (1871-1944): Russian Orthodox theologian.

Bulganin, Nikolai (1895-1975): Soviet politician. Maintained political presence under Stalin and Khruschev.

Busoni, Ferruccio (1866-1924): Italian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher. Taught at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory (1890-91) and there taught Elena Gnesina.

Catalogue d’oiseaux (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano. Composed in 1956-1958. World premiere by Yvonne Loriod. “L’Alouette lulu” from book 3 of Catalogue d’ oiseaux as recorded by Haimovsky.

Chekhov, Anton (1860-1904): Russian writer. Works mentioned in book: The Three Sisters, The Cherry Orchard, and Uncle Vanya.

Chernomordikov, David (1869-1947): Russian Founding member of RAPM. Composer of military songs.

Chopin, Fryderyk (1810-1849): Polish composer and pianist; Works mentioned in book: Berceuse; Etude no. 2, op. 10; Funeral March; Scherzo no. 3 in C-sharp Minor.

Chronochromie (Messiaen): Piece for orchestra. Composed in 1959-1960. Premiere conducted by Hans Rosbaud.

Chuzhak, Nikolai (1876-1937): Russian writer.

Cinq rechants (Messiaen): Piece for 12 voices. Composed in 1948. Premiere conducted by Marcel Couraud.

Čiurlionis, Mikalojus Konstantinas (1875-1911): Lithuanian painter and composer.

Clair, René (1898-1981): French filmmaker.

Claudel, Paul (1868-1955): French poet and diplomat.

Cliburn, Van (1934-2013): American pianist from Texas who won 1stprize at the first International Tchaikovsky Piano Competition in 1958, at the height of the Cold War. His performance of Rachmaninov’s Third Piano Concerto (with conductor Kiril Kondrashin) in Moscow is legendary and took Russia and the world by storm.

Communist Youth League (Komsomol): Political youth organization of the USSR. For more information about education and the rearing of young Soviet minds, see Sheila Fitzpatrick’s Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921-1934 as well as Juliane Fürst’s Stalin’s Last Generation: Soviet Post-War Youth and the Emergence of Mature Socialism.

Cortot, Alfred (1877-1962): French-Swiss pianist.

Couleurs de la cité céleste (Messiaen): Piece for orchestra and piano solo. Composed in 1963. Premiere conducted by Pierre Boulez; piano performed by Yvonne Loriod.

Couperin, François (1668-1733): French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist; Work mentioned in book: Le rossignol en amour.

Dali, Salvador (1904-1989): Spanish artist. Known as leader of Surrealism; Work mentioned in book: Old Age, Adolescence, and Infancy (1940).

Old Age, Adolescence, and Infancy

Daniel-Lesur, Jean-Yves(1908-2002): French composer and organist.

Dargomyzhsky, Alexander (1813-1869): Russian composer. Most known as a composer of opera, especially The Stone Guest (lyrics taken from Alexandr Pushkin’s play of the same name). His nationalistic style can be heard in his opera, Rusalka.

Davidenko, Aleksandr (1899-1934): Ukrainian/Russian composer. Primarily known for his songs and choral writing.

Davidovich, Bella (b. 1928): Jewish-Soviet pianist. Student of Konstantin Igumnov and Yakov Flier (after Igumnov died) at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Winner of the International Chopin Competition (1949).

de Falla, Manuel (1876-1946): Spanish composer. Haimovsky recorded de Falla’s Concerto for Harpsichord, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Violin and Cello for the Melodiya label with the Chamber Ensemble of Soloists of the Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR, directed by the well-known flutist Alexander Korneev.

Debussy, Claude (1862-1918): French composer, pianist, and music critic; Works mentioned in book: Children’s Corner;Estampes; Études; Images book 1 and 2 for piano;Images for orchestraJeux; L’îsle joyeuse; La mer; Nocturnes; Pelléas et MélisandePrélude à l’après-midi d’un faune; Préludes. For Haimovsky’s recordings of Debussy, see his release for Helicon.

Decembrists: Russian revolutionaries that led an unsuccessful uprising in December, 1825.

Delaunay, Robert (1885-1941): French artist who co-founded the Orphism art movement. Work mentioned in book: City of Paris (1910).

City of Paris

Delbos, Claire (1906-1959): French violinist and first wife of Messiaen.

Demichev, Pyotr (1918-2010): Soviet political figure and a member of the Politbuto led by Brezhnev.

Denikin, Anton (1872-1947): Tsarist general.

Denisov, Edison (1929-1996): Russian “non-conformist” composer.

Diptych (Messiaen): Piece for organ. Composed in 1930.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor (1821-1881): Russian writer. Wrote in Crime and Punishment: “To go wrong in one’s own way is better than to go right in someone else’s.” For an in-depth analysis of the writer, see Joseph Frank’s Dostoevsky: A Writer in His Time.

Duchamp, Marcel (1887-1968): French artist whose work is associated with the Cubist movement. Challenged “traditional” notions of “art.”

Dukas, Paul: (1865-1953): French composer and music critic. Taught at the Paris Conservatoire. Work mentioned in book: Ariane et Barbe-bleue.

Dunayevsky, Isaak (1900-1955): Soviet film composer. Song mentioned in book: “Broad Is My Native Land.

Dupré, Marcel (1886-1971): French organist and composer.

Dürer, Albrecht (1471-1528): German painter.

Working Title: Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: ca. 1497-98

Dutilleux, Henri (11916-2013): French composer. As Russell Platt writes: “Compared to the arch-modernist music of his formidable French contemporary Pierre Boulez, Dutilleux is almost  conservative. In ‘Métaboles,’ a succession of five movements highlighting different sections of  the orchestra, the influence of Stravinsky and, at times, American jazz, is obvious; so is that of Bartók and Berg in ‘Thus the Night.’ But unlike the formidable and undeniably more original   Boulez and Stockausen, Dutilleux knows that music is fundamentally a form of communication,  of spiritual and sonic empathy between composer, performers, and audience.”

Dzerzhinsky, Felix (1877-1926): Soviet Bolshevik leader. Spent years in prison and in exile in Siberia. To read more about him, see his Prison Diary and Letters.

Dzerzhinsky, Ivan (1909-1978): Soviet composer. Opera mentioned in book: Quiet Flows the Don. From this opera, “Border to Border.”

Ehrenburg, Ilya (1891-1967): Jewish-Soviet writer and Bolshevik. Work mentioned in book: Ottepel (The Thaw).

Engels, Friedrich (1820-1895): German philosopher. Co-authored The Communist Manifesto (1848) with Karl Marx. To see Lenin’s writing on Engels, see Lenin: Collected Works.

Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum (Messiaen): Piece for winds, brass, and percussion. Composed in 1964. Premiere conducted by Serge Baudo.

Etinger, Iakov (1887-1951): Soviet physician connected with The Doctor’s Plot in 1952-1953. For a full account of The Doctor’s Plot, see Jonathan Brent and Vladimir Naumov’s Stalin’s Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, 1948-1953.

Fay, Laurel E.: Independent scholar and expert on Russian and Soviet music. Primarily known for her work on Shostakovich.

Feinberg, Samuil (1890-1962): Russian composer and pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Feltsman, Vladimir (b. 1952): Jewish-Russian pianist. Student of Yakov Flier at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Fête des belles eaux (Messiaen): Piece for 6 ondes martenot. Composed in 1937.

films, Soviet: Works mentioned in book: The Children of Captain Grant; The Circus; and Jolly Fellows.

Flier, Yakov (1912-1977): Russian pianist and teacher. Student of Konstantin Igumnov. Professor of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Students include: Bella Davidovich, Mikhail Pletnev, Rodion Shchedrin, and Vladimir Feltsman.

Florensky, Pavel (1882–1937): Russian Orthodox theologian and philosopher.

Franck, César (1822-1890): Belgian composer, pianist, organist, and teacher. Work mentioned in book: Violin Sonata.

Franco, Francisco (1892-1975): Spanish dictator.

Fried, Oskar (1871-1941): German conductor. Conducted in Russia after the Revolution. Became a Soviet citizen in 1940.

Frunze, Mikhail (1885-1925): Bolshevik leader and Red Army Commander.

Gauk, Alexander (1893-1963), Russian conductor; founding conductor of the USSR State Symphony Orchestra.

Gieseking, Walter (1895-1956): French-born, German pianist. Despite his wide-range of repertoire as a soloist, Gieseking is remembered primarily as one of the great interpreters of the piano music of Claude Debussy.

Gilels, Elizabeth (1919-2008): Soviet violinist; professor of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Sister of pianist Emil Gilels and wife of legendary Soviet violinist Leonid Kogan. See here Leonid Kogan, Elizabeth Gilels, and their son Pavel Kogan perform the last movement of Vivaldi’s Concerto in F Major for Three Violins.

Gilels, Emil (1916-1985): Jewish-Soviet pianist. Student of Bertha Reingbald at the Odessa Conservatory. Student of Heinrich Neuhaus at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Professor of Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Chair of the jury for the first International Tchaikovsky Piano Competition, awarding first prize to American Van Cliburn.

Ginzburg, Grigory (1904-1961): Russian pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Giraudeau, Jean (1916-1995): French tenor.

Glazunov, Aleksandr (1865-1936): Russian composer, conductor, and teacher. Work mentioned in book: Prelude and Fugue in D Minor.

Gliere, Reinhold (1875-1956): Ukrainian born Soviet composer.

Glikman, Isaak (1911-2003): Close friend and confidant of Dmitri Shostakovich. For more detail on their relationship, see the correspondence, Story of a Friendship: The Letters of Dmitri Shostakovich to Isaak Glikman, 1941-1975.

Glinka, Mikhail (1804-1857): Russian composer. Nationalistic in nature, Glinka’s compositions paved the way for The Mighty Five.

Glinka State Conservatory (Gorky/Nizhni Novgorod): Founded in 1946, Haimovsky taught at the Conservatory in the 1960s.

Gmyrya, Boris (1903-1969): Ukrainian bass singer.

Gnesin, Mikhail (1883-1957): Jewish-Russian composer and teacher. Student of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov. His students include Aram Khachaturian.

Gnesin Institute: Established in 1895 by Elena Fabianovna, Evgenia Fabianovna, and Maria Fabianovna Gnesina as the Gnesin School. Became the Gnesin Institute in 1944.

Gnesina, Elena Fabianovna (1874-1967): Jewish-Russian pianist and pedagogue. Student of Busoni and Vasili Safonov at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Founded the Gnesin Institute with her two sisters. In addition to Haimovsky, her piano students included Lev Oborin and Aram Khachaturian.

Godowsky, Leopold (1870-1938): Polish pianist, composer, and teacher.

Golden Fleece: Silver-Era journal. For more information on content of the journal, see the exhibition from The Tretyakov Gallery Magazine.

Goldenweiser, Alexander Borisovich (1875–1961): Russian-Soviet Pianist, himself a student a Alexander Siloti. Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory, who taught Samuil Feinberg, Grigory Ginzburg, Dmitri Bashkirov, and Lazar Berman, among others.

Goldstein, Boris (1922-1987): Soviet violinist.

Golubev, Evgeny (1910-1988): Russian-Soviet composer. Student of Nikolai Myaskovsky. Taught at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Golubovskaya, Nadezhda (1891-1975): Russian pianist. Taught at the Leningrad Conservatory.

Gorky, Maxim (1868-1936): Russian-Soviet writer. Proponent of Socialist Realism. Works mentioned in book: Egor Bulychev and The Lower Depths.

Gorodinsky, Viktor (1902-1959): Soviet music critic.

grazhdanstvennost’ (гражданственность’concept: civic virtue

Grinberg, Maria (1908-1978): Ukrainian/Soviet pianist. Student of Felix Blumenfeld (teacher of Vladimir Horowitz). After his death, studied with Konstantin Igumnov at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Gromyko, Andrei (1909-1989): Soviet politician and ambassador to the United States.

Gubaidulina, Sofia (b. 1931): Tatar-Russian composer. Student at Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Devotedly Christian composer.

Gutnikov, Boris (1931-1986): Soviet violinist and teacher.

Guzman, Israel (1917-2003): Russian conductor. Chief conductor of Gorky Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra from  1957-1987.

Harawi (Messiaen): Piece for dramatic soprano and piano. Composed 1945. Premiered by Marcelle Bunlet and Olivier Messiaen.

Haydn, Franz Joseph (1732-1809): Austrian composer. Work mentioned in book: Sonata in E-flat Major, Hob. XVI:52.

Honegger, Arthur (1892-1955): Swiss composer. Founding member of Les Six. Honegger stated: “There is a whole new world that wants to understand itself, self-discover, define itself, glorify itself in  new aesthetic forms. My passion from now on will be limited to this world. I prefer failure in this endeavour to the idleness satisfied with established form and acquired habits.”

Huit préludes (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano. Composed 1928-1929. Premiered by Henriette Roget.

Igumnov, Konstantin (1873-1948): Russian pianist and teacher. Student of Alexander Siloti. Teacher of Yakov Flier, Leb Oborin, Maria Grinberg Bella Davidovich, Rosa Tamarkina, among others at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Ilyichev, Leonid F. (1906-1990): Soviet journalist and politician.

In Search of the Isle of Joy (Haimovsky): Gregory Haimovsky’s memoir, published 2002, Liberty Publishing House, New York, NY.

In Search of the Isle of Joy by Gregory Haimovsky

Ile de feu 1 and 4 (Messiaen): 2 movements from Quatre études de rythme for solo piano. Composed in 1950. Premiered by Olivier Messiaen. Ile de feu 1 as recorded by Haimovsky.

Jeune France, La: A group formed in 1936 of French composersincluding Yves Baudrier, Jean Yves Daniel-Lesur, André Jolivet, and Olivier Messiaen.

Jolivet, André (1905-1974): French composer. Student of Edgar Varèse. Co-founder of La Jeune France.

Kabalevsky, Dmitri (1904-1987): Russian composer. One of the founders of the Union of Soviet Composers. Student of composition of Nikolai Myaskovsky and piano of Alexander Goldenweiser at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Kachalov, Vasily (1875-1948): Russian actor. Known for his work with Konstantin Stanislavsky and the Moscow Art Theatre.

Kaganovich, Lazar (1893-1991): Soviet politician, close administrator and aide of Stalin.

Kalinin, Mikhail (1875-1946): Soviet politician and Bolshevik.

Kamenev, Lev (1883-1936): Soviet politician and Bolshevik. Executed in 1936.

Kandinsky, Vassily (1866-1944): Russian painter and art theorist. In writing about music, Kandinsky stated: “With few exceptions music has been for some centuries the art which has devoted itself not to the reproduction of natural phenomena, but rather to the expression of the artist’s soul, in musical sound.” See Kandinsky, W. (1977). Concerning the spiritual in art[Über das Geistige in der Kunst.]. New York: Dover Publications.

Composition VIII by Kandinsky

Kanner, Grigory (1897-1937): Soviet politician and aide to Stalin. Executed in 1937.

Katz, Isaac (1922-2009): Soviet-Jewish pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Professor of piano at the Glinka Conservatory of Music (in, then, Gorky). Immigrated to Israel.

Kerzhenstev, Platon (1881-1940): Chairman of the Committee on Cultural Affairs (1936-1938), and presided over the “anti-formalism” campaign in the arts in the USSR.

Khachaturian, Aram (1903-1978): Armenian composer, pianist, and conductor. Work mentioned in book: Piano Concerto in D-flat Major.

Kholopov, Yuri (1932-2003): Russian theorist and musicologist. Student and, later, Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Khrennikov, Tikhon (1913-2007): Russian-Soviet composer and pianist. Headed the Union of Soviet Composers.

Khrushchev, Nikita (1894-1971): Soviet politician. Served as Premier Minister of the USSR from 1958-1964. For more information, see Soviet State and Society Under Nikita Khrushchev edited by Melanie Ilic and Jeremy Smith.

Khurgin, Isaiah Yakovlevich (1887-1925): Mathematician and astronomer. Killed together with Efraim Sklyansky.

Kirov, Sergei (1886-1934): Bolshevik leader. Murdered on December 1, 1934. For more information about Kirov, see The Kirov Murder and Soviet History by Matthew Lenoe.

Kleiber, Erich (1890-1956): Austrian composer and conductor.

Klemperer, Otto (1885-1973): German-Jewish conductor and composer.

Knushevitsky, Sviatoslav (1908-1963): Soviet cellist. Most known for performing in a trio with David Oistrakh and Lev Oborin. Student and later professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1950.

Kogan, Leonid (1924-1982): Soviet violinist, professor of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Often performed with his wife Elizabeth Gilels; and formed a preeminent trio with cellist Mstislav Rostropovich and pianist Emil Gilels.

Kondrashin, Kiril (1914-1981): Soviet conductor. Student at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.  Director of the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra from 1960-1975. Took up political asylum in the Netherlands in 1978.

Kopytman, Mark (1929-2011): Soviet-born, Israeli composer. For more information, see The Music of Mark Kopytman: Echoes of Imaginary Lines. Dedicated “Variable Structures” for solo piano to Haimovsky (and Haimovsky recorded this work for Stuttgart Radio); wrote “For Gregory” for Haimovsky’s 75th birthday and premiered the piece at Merkin Concert Hall in NYC (Haimovsky recorded this work):

Korjus, Miliza (1905-1980): Estonian soprano opera singer. Starred in The Great Waltz.

Korneev, Alexander (1930-2010): Russian flutist, director Chamber Ensemble of Soloists of the Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR.

Kornilov, Lavr (1870-1918): Imperial Russian Army officer during WWI.

Kozolupov, Semen (1884-1961): Russian cellist and professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Taught Sviatoslav Knushevitsky and Mstislav Rostropovich, among others.

Kramarov, Yuri (1929-1981): Soviet violist and professor at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Küchelbecker, Wilhelm (1797-1846): Russian Romantic poet and Decembrist. Shostakovich used one of Küchelbecker’s poems, “O, Delvig, Delvig,” for lyrics in his Symphony 14.

Kukharsky, Vasiliy (1918-1995): Soviet musicologist. Deputy Minister of Culture of the USSR from 1967-1983.

Le Boulaire, Jean (1913-1999): French actor and violinist. Performed the premiere of Olivier Messiaen’s Quatuor pour la fin du temps while a prisoner of war at Stalag VIII-A, in Görlitz.

Left Front of the Arts journal: Formed in 1923 (editors were poets Osip Brik and Vladimir Mayakovsky), LEF (“ЛЕФ“) was a modernist Soviet publication that featured work about avant-garde writers, photographers, designers, and more.

Lenin, Vladimir (1970-1924): Russian revolutionary. Founder of the Russian Communist Party. For more in Lenin, see Lenin’s Final Fight: Speeches and Writings, 1922-23and Lenin and His Comrades: The Bolsheviks Take Over Russia, 1917-1924 by Yuri Felshtinsky.

Leningrad Conservatory: Currently (and originally) named N.A. Rimsky Korsakov Saint Petersburg Conservatory of Music. Became the Leningrad Conservatory when the city changed its name from Saint Petersburg to Leningrad (1924-1991). Founded in 1862 by pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein.

Levitan, Yuri (1914-1983): Soviet radio announcer.

Levitin, Yuri (1912-1993): Soviet composer. Film composer, including music for “Ugryum-River,” directed by Yaropolk Lapshin.

Lhévinne, Josef (1874-1944): Russian pianist and teacher. Moved to New York and lectured at the Juilliard School from 1919 until his sudden death. For the pianist’s thinking on piano playing, see Basic Principles in Pianoforte Playing.

Lill, John (b. 1944): British pianist.

Liszt, Franz (1811-1886): Hungarian virtuoso pianist, composer, teacher, and conductor. Works mentioned in book: Concert Etude in E-flat Major; Hungarian Rhapsody no. 2; Hungarian Rhapsody no. 8; Petrarch Sonnet 123; Sonata in B Minor.

Literaturnaya gazeta: Soviet cultural and political newspaper.

Loeschhorn, Albert (1819-1905): German composer. Composed piano etudes for developing pianists.

Lunacharsky, Anatoly (1875-1933): Soviet, Bolshevik politician, writer, and art historian. From 1917 to 1929 was leader of Narkompros: the “People’s Commissariat for Education.”

Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862-1949): Belgian playwright, however later in life became known for his philosophical essays. Won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1911); Work mentioned in book: The Blue Bird.

Mahler, Gustav (1860-1911): Austrian composer and conductor. For more information on the composer, see, for example, Why Mahler?: How One Man and Ten Symphonies Changed Our World by Norman Lebrecht; Work mentioned in book: Das Lied von der Erde.

Makovsky, Vladimir (1846-1920): Russian painter and art collector.

Malenkov, Georgy (1902-1988): Soviet politician. Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953-1955.

Malraux, André (1901-1976): French writer, art theorist, and Minister of Cultural Affairs. Commissioned Messiaen to compose Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum.

Malyi Theater (Moscow): Theater established in 1806, used primarily for the production of plays. The word “malyi” (мали) means “small.”

Mamontov, Savva (1841-1918): Wealthy Russian who donated paintings to the Hermitage Museum.

Mandelstam, Osip (1891-1938): Jewish-Russian poet and essayist. Exiled and died in the Gulag. For more information, see Mandelstam’s The Noise of Time.

Marantz, Berta (1907-1998): Piano professor at Glinka Gorky Conservatory of Music.

Margulis, Vitaly (1928-2011): Ukrainian-Russian pianist. Taught at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music until immigrating to Germany, where he taught at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg. Immigrated to the United States, where he taught at UCLA.

Maria Feodorovna, empress of Russia: (1847-1928): Danish princess and Empress of Russia.

Marshak, Samuil (1887-1964): Jewish-Soviet poet and writer.

Massenet, Jules (1842-1912): French composer.

Mayakovsky, Vladimir (1893-1930): Soviet poet and writer. Work mentioned in book: “150 Million.” See, also, Pro Eto (Про Это) – That’s What, Mayakovsky’s long love poem to Lila Brik.

Mazel, Lev (1907-2000): Russian musicologist and theorist. Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Medtner, Nikolai (1880-1951): Russian composer and pianist. Work mentioned in book: Sonata Reminiscenza.

Mekhlis, Lev (1889-1953): Soviet politician.

Melik-Pashayev, Alexander (1905-1964): Soviet-Armenian conductor.

Melodiya (Μелодия) label: Founded 1964, existed as an All-Union record company for the Ministry of Culture of the USSR.

Mendelssohn, Felix (1809-1847): German (ethnically Jewish) composer, pianist, and conductor. Work mentioned in book: Piano Concerto in G Minor.

Menotti, Gian Carlo (1911-2007): Italian composer.

Menuhin, Yehudi (1916-1999): American born, Jewish-British violinist.

Merezhkovsky, Dmitri (1865–1941): Russian writer and religious thinker.

merle noir, Le (Messiaen): Piece for flute and piano. Composed in 1951.

Merzhanov, Victor (1919-2012): Russian pianist and professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Student of Samuil Feinberg and Alexander Goedicke (organ).

Messiaen, Olivier (1908-1992): French composer, organist, and pianist. Studied composition with Charles-Marie Widor and Paul Dukas at the Paris Conseravtoire.

Messiaen, Pierre (1883-1957): Father of composer Olivier Messiaen. Scholar of English literature, particularly the works of William Shakespeare.

Meyerhold, Vsevolod (1874-1940): Soviet theater director. Co-founder of the Moscow Art Theatre. Against the foundations and principles of Socialist Realism, Meyerhold was arrested, tortured, and executed. For more information, see Vsevolod Meyerhold by Jonathan Price.

Mezhinsky, Semen (1889-1978): Soviet actor.

Mikhoels, Solomon (1890-1948): Soviet Jewish actor. Mikhoels was artistic director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater. In 1948, Mikhoels’ body was run over, under Stalin’s orders, to create the impression of a traffic accident.

Mikoyan, Anastas (1895-1978): Soviet-Armenian Bolshevik politician and later supporter of Stalin.

Milhaud, Darius (1892-1974): Jewish-French composer. Member of Les Six. Haimovsky recorded Milhaud’s Sonata for flute, oboe, clarinet, and piano for the Melodiya label with the Chamber Ensemble of Soloists of the Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR, directed by the well-known flutist Alexander Korneev.

Mitropoulos, Dimitri (1896-1960): Greek conductor, pianist, and composer.

Molotov, Vyacheslav (1890-1986): Soviet politician and devoted supporter of Stalin. Related to composer Alexander Scriabin. For more information, see Molotov: A Biography by Derek Watson.

Monaszon, Emmanuil (1927-2010): Jewish-Soviet pianist. Student of Konstantin Igumnov and Yakov Zak.

Monteux, Pierre (1875-1964): French conductor. Premiered Messiaen’s Le tombeau resplendissant.

Moscow Jewish Theatre: Founded in 1920, one of its leading actors was Solomon Mikhoels. Shut down due to ideological reasons in 1949.

Mosolov, Alexander (1900-1973): Russian “futuristic” composer. Arrested for so-called “counter-revolutionary activities.”

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791): Austrian composer and pianist. Works mentioned in book: Concerto in B-flat Major, K. 595; Don Giovanni.

Mravinsky, Yevgeny (1903-1988): Russian conductor. Largely not well-known in the West.

Munch, Charles (1891-1968): German-born conductor. Music director of Boston Symphony Orchestra; known for his interpretations of French music.

Musin, Ilya (1903-1999): Russian conductor and teacher.

Mussorgsky, Modest (1839-1881): Russian, nationalist composer. Considered one of Russia’s “Mighty Five.”  Works mentioned in book: Boris GodunovPictures from an Exhibition; Songs and Dances of Death.

Mutnykh, Vladimir (1895-1937): Director, Bolshoi Theatre, accused of plotting against the government, was executed on November 26.

Muzykal’naia nov’ (Музыкальная новь) journal: Avant-garde journal (translation: New musical reality).

Myaskovsky, Nikolai (1881-1950): Russian-Soviet composer.

Narkompros: Otherwise known as the People’s Commissariat for Education. For more information, see The Commissariat of Enlightenment: Soviet Organization of Education and the Arts Under Lunacharsky, October 1917-1921 by Sheila Fitzpatrick.

Nebolsin, Vassili (1898-1958): Russian conductor.

Nechipailo, Viktor (b. 1926): Russian bass singer.

Neruda, Pablo (1904-1973): Pen name for Chilean poet.

Neuhaus, Heinrich (1888-1964): Ethnically German, Russian pianist and Professor of Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Students include: Emil Gilels, Sviatoslav Richter, Yakov Zak, Yevgeny Malinin, Alexei Lubimov, Radu Lupu, among many others. For more information on Neuhaus’ artistic principles, see The Art of Piano Playing.

Neuhaus, Stanislav (1927-1980): Soviet pianist. Son of Heinrich Neuhaus. Studied with his father at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

New Economic Policy” (NEP): Economic policy of Lenin.

Nielsen, Vladimir (1910-1998): Russian pianist and Professor at Saint Petersburg Conservatory of Music.

Oborin, Lev (1907-1974) Russian pianist: won the first International Chopin Piano Competition in 1927. Aram Khachaturian dedicated his Piano Concerto in D-flat to Oborin. Oborin taught many pianists, including Vladimir Ashkenazy (winner of the second prize at the 1955 Chopin Competition), Boris Berman, and Olga Kiun.

offrandes oubliées,Les (Messiaen): Piece for orchestra. Composed in 1930. Premiere conducted by Walter Straram.

Oiseaux exotiques (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano, winds, brass, and percussion. Composed 1955-1956. Premiere conducted by Rudolf Albert; solo piano Yvonne Loriod.

Oistrakh, David (1908-1974): Preeminent Jewish-Soviet violinist.

Oktyabryonok (Октябрёнок) organization: Young Octobrists. Part of Communist organization for children age 9 and under.

Orphism: Movement in visual art, which began around 1912. The term was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire to distinguish this artistic practice from Cubism.

Robert Delaunay – Rhythm n1 (1938)

Orvid, Georgy (1904-1980): Soviet trumpeter and Professor of Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Paperno, Dmitry (b. 1929): Ukrainian born, Soviet pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser at Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Immigrated to the United States and became Professor at DePaul University in Chicago. For more information, see his autobiography, Notes of a Moscow Pianist.

Pärt, Arvo (b. 1935): Estonian composer. For more information, see The Cambridge Companion to Arvo Pärt.

Pasquier, Étienne (1905-1997): French cellist. Gave premiere performance of Quatour pour la fin du temps (Messiaen) in Stalag VIII along-side Jean Le Boulaire, Henri Akoka, and Olivier Messiaen.

Pasternak, Boris (1890-1960): Jewish-Soviet writer. For more information, see Boris Pasternak: A Literary Biography by Christopher Barnes. Work mentioned in book: Doctor Zhivago.

Perelman, Nathan (1906-2002): Jewish-Soviet pianist and Professor at Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Petri, Egon (1881-1962): Dutch-German pianist.

Picabia, Francis (1879-1953): French artist and poet.

Hera / Otaïti, 1930, Picabia

Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973): Spanish artist.

Pioneers: Founded in 1922, organization for Soviet youth, age 10-14.

(To the struggle for the cause of Lenin and Stalin, be ready!)

Polovinkin, Leonid (1894-1949): Soviet composer.

Polyakin, Miron (1895-1941): Ukrainian born, Russian-Soviet violinist. Student of Leopold Auer. Professor at Leningrad Conservatory and then Moscow Conservatory.

Popov, Gavriil (1904-1972): Soviet composer.

Poulenc, Francis (1899-1963): French composer and pianist. Considered one of Les Six. Work mentioned in book: La voix humaine.

Pravda (Правда): Soviet newspaper. Title translates as “truth.”

Prokofiev, Sergei (1891-1953): Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. For more information, see Sergei Prokofiev: His Musical Life by Israel Nestyev.

Pushkin, Aleksandr (1799-1837): Russian poet and playwright. For more information, see The Pushkin Handbook. Works mentioned in book: The Captain’s Daughter; “Winter Morning.”

Quatour pour la fin du temps (Messiaen): Piece for violin, clarinet, cello, and piano. Composed 1940-1941. Premiere performance Jean Le Boulaire, Henri Akoka, Etienne Pasquier, and Olivier Messiaen. As recorded by Haimovsky for Melodiya, 1970.

Quatre études de rythme (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano. No 1 composed 1950; No 2 composed 1949; No 3 composed 1949; No 4 composed 1950. Premiere performance by Olivier Messiaen.

Rachlin, Natan (1906-1979): Soviet conductor.

Rachmaninov, Sergei (1873-1943), Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. Works mentioned in book: Piano Concerto no. 2; Sonata in B-flat Minor; Suite no. 2 for Two Pianos.

Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR (also known as Symphony Orchestra of All-Union Radio and Television). Founded by conductor Alexander Orlov, the orchestra was led by Gennady Rozhdestvensky (from 1961-1974), who led the Soviet premiere of Messiaen’s Oiseaux exotiques. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the orchestra was renamed the Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra.

Rameau, Jean-Philippe (1683-1764): French composer and music theorist. Work mentioned in book: Les trois mains.

Ravel, Maurice (1875-1937): French composer, pianist, and conductor. For more information, see Ravel by Roger Nichols.

Razumovskaya, Vera (1904-1967): Russian pianist and Professor at Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Red Virgin Soil, journal: Soviet literary journal. For more information, see Red Virgin Soil: Soviet Literature in the 1920’s by Robert A. Maguire.

Reingbald, Berta (1897-1944): Jewish-Ukrainian pianist and pedagogue. Teacher of Emil Gilels, Maria Grinberg, among others. Taught at the Odessa Conservatory, Leningrad Conservatory, and then at the Gnesin Institute.

Reizen, Marc (1895-1992): Jewish-Soviet opera (bass) singer.

Réveil des oiseaux (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano and orchestra. Composed 1953. Premiere performance conducted by Hans Rosbaud; piano performed by Yvonne Loriod.

Richter, Sviatoslav (1915-1997): Soviet pianist. While both his parents were German, he was born in the Ukraine. Student of Heinrich Neuhaus at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Rilke, Rainer Maria (1875-1926): Austrian (Prague-born) poet. Shostakovich used Rilke’s “Der Tod des Dichters” (Death of the poet) and “Schlußstück”(Conclusion) in Symphony 14.

Rimbaud, Arthur (1854-1891): French surrealist poet.

Rischin, Rebecca (b. 1967): Clarinetist and Professor at Ohio University. Wrote For the End of Time: The Story of the Messiaen Quartet.

Roerich, Nicholas (1874-1947): Russian painter and writer.

Roldan, Amadeo (1900-1939): Cuban composer and violinist.

Roslavets, Nikolai (1881-1944): Russian modernist composer.

Rostropovich, Mstislav (1927-2007): Soviet cellist and conductor. Nickname “Slava” (trans: Glory). Student and Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Immigrated to the United State in 1974.

Rozanov, Vasily (1856–1919): Controversial Russian writer and philosopher.

Rozhdestvensky, Gennady (1931-2018): Soviet conductor and pianist. His father was the renown conductor and teacher Nikolair Anosov. Because of this, Rozhdestvensky took his mother’s (soprano, Natalya Rozhdestvenskaya) maiden name. Student of conducting (with his father) and piano (with Lev Oborin) at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Rubinstein, Anton (1829-1894): Jewish born (though later converted to Russian Orthodoxy), Russian pianist, composer, and conductor who founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory of Music. For more information, see Anton Rubenstein: A Life in Music by Philip S. Taylor.

Rubinstein, Nikolai (1835-1881): Jewish born (though later converted to Russian Orthodoxy), Russian pianist, composer, and conductor who founded the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Russian Association of Proletariat Musicians (RAPM): Rossiyskaya Assotsiatsiya Proletaskikh Muzykantov, the competing organization to the Association of Contemporary Music (ASM). For detailed information on the ASM and the RAPM, see Music and Soviet Power, 1917-1932 by Marina Frolova-Walker and Jonathan Walker.

Russian Orthodoxy: The Russian Orthodox Church, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy, was the primary religious organization in the Russian Empire. Russian Orthodoxy ascended to primary important alongside Russian nationalism (and Slavophilism). During the reign of Tsar Nicholas I, “Samoderjavie, Pravoslavie, Narodnost” (Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationality)—a phrase coined by the scholar and statesman Sergei Uvarov—signaled the territorial expansion of the Russian sovereign, nation-state, and became the ideological foundation of Russian nationalism, which became firmly rooted during the nineteenth century.  However, during the Russian Revolution, Russian Orthodoxy was slowly replaced, by way of policy and practice, with nationalistic atheism. Indeed, 1929, the USSR passed policy forbidding the Russian Church from owning any real-estate. All Church land, funds, and property was confiscated by the government. For more  information on the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian       Revolution, see, for example, The Making of Holy Russia: The Orthodox Church and Russian Nationalism Before the Revolution by John Strickland and Keeping the Faith: Russian Orthodox Monasticism In the Soviet Union, 1917-1939 by Jennifer Jean Wynot.

Russian piano school: For more information, see The Russian Piano School: Russian Pianists & Moscow Conservatory Professors on the Art of the Piano.

Safonov, Vasili (1852-1918): Russian pianist, conductor, composer, and teacher. Student of Theodor Leschetizky at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory of Music. Safonov became Director of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. His students included Alexander Scriabin, Josef Lhévinne, Alexander Goedicke, and Elena Fabianovna Gnesina.

Sakharov, Andrei (1921-1989): Nuclear physicist and activist. Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.

Samosud, Samuil (1884-1964): Russian conductor. Appointed chief conductor of the Bolshoi in 1936. Worked there until 1943, though continued to work as a conductor in Moscow. Prior to his work in Moscow, Samosud taught at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Samuel, Claude (b. 1931): French music critic. Published interviews with Olivier Messiaen, among other 20thcentury musicians and composers.

Sanderling, Kurt (1912-2011): German conductor. Though, spent much of his career conducting in the Soviet Union.

Satie, Erik (1866-1925): French composer and pianist. For more information, see Erik Satie: Music, Art, and Literature.

Schnittke, Alfred (1934-1998): Russian-German composer. Labeled a “polystylist,” Schnittke’s music was considered “avant-garde” in the USSR. For more information, see A Schnittke Reader. Work mentioned in book: Serenade.

Schoenberg, Arnold (1874-1951): Jewish-Austrian composer. Leader of the Second Viennese School (alongside Alban Berg and Anton Webern).

Schwarz, Boris (1906-1984): Jewish Russian-born violinist and musicologist. Wrote one of the first, large-scale English studies on Soviet music history, Music and Musical Life in the Soviet Union, 1917-1970.

Schytte, Ludvig (1848-1909): Danish pianist, composer, and teacher. Among other works, composed pieces for developing pianists.

Scriabin, Alexander (1871-1915): Russian composer and pianist. For more information, see The Alexander Scriabin Companion: History, Performance, and Lore by Lincoln Ballard and Matthew Bengtsonand The Performing Style of Alexander Scriabin by Anatole Leikin;  Works mentioned in book: Poem of Ecstasy; and Prometheus.

Sept haïkaï (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano and orchestra. Composed 1962. Premiere performance conducted by Pierre Boulez; piano performed by Yvonne Loriod.

Serebryakov, Pavel (1909-1977): Russian pianist and Professor (and Director) of the Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Serov, Alexander (1820-1871): Russian composer and critic. Known most for composing operas. Work mentioned in book: Rogneda.

Shafran, Daniil (1923-1997): Soviet cellist. Competitor of Rostropovich.

Shaporin, Yuri (1887-1966): Soviet composer. Founding member of the ASM. Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of music. Students include Rodion Shchedrin.

Shchedrin, Rodion (b. 1932): Soviet-Russian composer and pianist. Student at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music; studied composition with Yuri Shaporin and piano with Yakov Flier.

Shebalin, Vissarion (1902-1963): Soviet composer. Member of the ASM. Student of Nikolai Myaskovsky and later Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Students include Edison Denisov and Grigory Frid.

Shekhter, Boris (1900-1961): Soviet composer and teacher. Student of Nikolai Myaskovsky at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music

Shkiriatov, Matvei (1883-1954): Soviet politician who served Stalin.

Shneerson, Grigory (1901-1982): Soviet musicologist. Work mentioned in book: About Music, Dead and Alive.

Shostakovich, Dmitri (1906-1975): Russian-Soviet composer and pianist. Student of Alexander Glazunov. Taught at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music and the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. For more information, see Shostakovich: A Life by Laurel E. Fay. Works mentioned in book: Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District; The Limpid Stream; Symphony no. 2 in C Major, “October”;Symphony no. 3 in E-flat Major, “The First of May”; Symphony no. 4 in C MinorSymphony no. 7, “Leningrad”Symphony no. 11 in G Minor, “1905”; Symphony no. 12 in D Minor, “1917”; Symphony no. 13 in B-flat Minor, “Babi Yar”; Symphony no. 14; Symphony no. 15; Violin Concerto in A Minor; Violin Sonata.

Shulgin, Lev (1890-1968): Soviet composer and pianist.

Sidelnikov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1930-1992): Russian composer. Student and Professor Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Works mentioned in book: Russian Fairy Tales; The Dialectics of Nature; America—My Love; and Piano-Symphony LabyrinthsFriendship with Haimovsky, see Сидельников: звуки и слова (Sidelnikov: sounds and words). Haimovsky recorded Sidelnikov’s  Russian Fairy Tales for the Melodiya label with the Chamber Ensemble of Soloists of the Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR, directed by the well-known flutist Alexander Korneev.

Silvestrov, Valentin (b. 1937) Ukrainian composer and pianist. For some discussion about Silvestrov, see  Such Freedom, If Only Musical: Unofficial Soviet Music During the Thaw by Peter J. Schmelz.

Simon, Viktor (b. 1930): Soviet cellist. Student of Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Previous member and Concert Master of Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR under Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Premiered, among other important works, Messiaen’s Quatour pour la fin du temps in the USSR.

Sitkovetsky, Julian (1925-1958), Ukrainian-Russian violinist. David Oistrakh was quoted (by Joseph Magil of American Record Guide) as saying that, had Sitkovetsky not have died young due to cancer, he would have outshone both him and Kogan.  Magil stated that “Sitkovetsky had a broad, firm, focused tone in all registers; flawless intonation; a rapid, even trill; a swift, perfectly controlled staccato; strong, immaculate harmonics; and an even, clear sautillé.” Haimovsky performed Tchaikovsky’s Piano Trio at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory with Sitkovetsky and cellist Veniamin Rubin (who later became a member and soloist of the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra).

Sklyansky, Efraim (1892-1925): Soviet revolutionary and Leninist. Appointed to Revolutionary Military      Council. For more information on his mysterious death (read: murder), see “Death in the Adirondacks: Amtorg, Intrigue, and the Dubious Demise of Isaiya Khurgin and Efraim Sklyansky, August 1925 c 2015” by Richard Spence.

Slonimsky, Nicolas (1894-1995): Russian-born pianist, composer, and writer.

Slonimsky, Sergei (b. 1932): Soviet composer, pianist, and musicologist. Nephew of Nicolas Slonimsky. Student of Vissarion Shebalin at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music Wrote “American Rhapsody on a ‘G-HA’ for two pianos and synthesizer”; piece was premiered at Merkin Concert Hall on February 5, 1992 (with Haimovsky on synthesizer).

Socialist Realism: Soviet concept of culture that maintained a stance of governmentally aligned, “idealized realism” in art, literature, music, and so forth.

Sofronitsky, Vladimir (1901-1961): Russian pianist. Most known for his extraordinary interpretations of the music of Alexander Scriabin; Sofronitsky married Elena Scriabina, daughter of the late composer.

Sokolov, Ivan (b. 1960): Russian-born composer and pianist. Student of Nikolai Sidelnikov (composition) and Lev Naumov (piano) at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Soloviev, Vladimir (1853–1900): Russian philosopher.

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr (1918-2008): Russian writer, Nobel Prize winner, and candid critic of the Soviet Union. Works mentioned in book: The First Circle; and “Live Not by Lies.”

Sondeckis, Saulius (1928-2016): Lithuanian conductor and violinist. Conducted the Soviet premieres of Messiaen’s Trois petites liturgies de la presence divinewith Haimovsky.

Soutine, Chaïm (1893-1943): Jewish, Russian-French painter. Work mentioned in book: “Piece of Beef.”

Speransky, Mikhail (1772-1839): Statesman who served Tsar Nicholas I.

Sposobin, Igor (1900-1954): Russian musicologist. Student and Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music.

Stalag VIII-A: German prisoner of war camp during WWII. Where Messiaen wrote and premiered Quatuor pour la fin du temps.

Stalin, Josef (1878-1953): Soviet Georgian-born politician who ruled the USSR for over two decades. For more information, see, for example, the work of the late historian Robert Conquest.

Stanislavsky, Konstantin (1863-1938): Russian theater director, developed a system of acting. For insights into Stanislavsky’s ideas for actors, see his books An Actor Prepares, Building a Characterand Creating a Role.

Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1928-2007): German composer. Student of Messiaen.

Stravinsky, Igor (1882-1971): Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. Student of Rimsky-Korsakov. Left the USSR; became United States citizen in 1945. For more information, see Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions(vols I and II) by Richard Taruskin. Work mentioned in book: The Rite of Spring; Petrushka; and Firebird.

surrealism: 20thcentury movement.

Sveshnikov, Alexander (1890-1980): Russian choral conductor.

Svetlanov, Evgeny (1928-2002): Russian/Soviet conductor, composer, and pianist. Principal conductor of the USSR State Symphony Orchestra (1965-2000). Premiered TurangalîlaSymphonie in Moscow with Gregory Haimovsky. Unfortunately, the conductor’s website does not list this important premiere among Svetlanov’s major achievements. This is a major oversight.

Sviridov, Georgy (1915-1998): Soviet nationalistic composer. Student of Shostakovich at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music. Works mentioned in book: The DecembristsPoem in Memory of Sergei Yesenin;  and Pathetic Oratorio on texts by Mayakovsky. The Pathetic Oratoriowon the Lenin           Prize.

Szigeti, Joseph (1892-1973): Hungarian violinist.

Szymanowski, Karol (1882-1937): Polish composer and pianist.

Tamarkina, Rosa (1920-1950): Soviet pianist. Student of Alexander Goldenweiser and Konstantin Igumnov, and then Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory of Music. Wife of Emil Gilels.

Taruskin, Richard (b. 1945): Musicologist and Professor at UC Berkley. Expert on, among many other things, Russian and Soviet music history.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr (1840-1893): Russian composer. For more information, see, for example, Tchaikovsky Papers: Unlocking the Family Archive; Works mentioned in book: Piano Concerto; Piano Trio.

Tcherepnin, Alexander (1899-1977): Russian-born composer and pianist.

Thème et Variations (Messiaen): Piece for violin and piano. Composed 1932. Premiered by Claire Delbos and Olivier Messiaen.

Tishchenko, Boris (1939-2010): Russian-Soviet composer and pianist.

tombeau resplendissant, Le (Messiaen): Piece for orchestra. Composed 1931.  Premiere conducted by Pierre Monteux.

Tournemire, Charles (1870-1939): French composer and organist.

transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ, La (Messiaen): Piece for chorus and orchestra with 7 soloists (piano, cello, flute, clarinet, xylophone, marimba, and vibraphone). Composed 1965-1969. Premiere conducted by Serge Baudo.

Tretyakov, Pavel (1832-1898): Russian businessman and art collector who co-founded the Tretyakov  Gallery in Moscow, which focused on Russian art.

Tretyakov, Sergei (1834–1892): Russian businessman and art collector who co-founded the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, which focused on Russian art.

Tretyakov, Sergei (1892–1939): Russian poet and writer; one of founders of the journal, LEF. Charged with espionage and sentenced to death.

Trois petites liturgies de la presence divine (Messiaen): Piece for 36 women’s voice, piano solo, ondes martenot solo, celest, vibraphone, percussion, and strings. Composed 1943-1944. Premiere performance conducted by Roger Désormière; solo piano performed by Yvonne Loriod.

Trotsky, Leon (1879-1940): Jewish-Soviet revolutionary. Works mentioned in book: Literature and Revolution; and My Life.

Tukhachevsky, Mikhail (1893-1937): Soviet military leader.

Tupikin, Vladimir(b. 1934): Russian clarinetist. Previous member of Radio and TV Orchestra of the USSR under Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Premiered, among other important works, Messiaen’s Quatour pour la fin du temps in the USSR.

Turangalîla-Symphonie (Messiaen): Piece for solo piano, solo ondes martenot, and orchestra. Composed 1946-1948. Premiere performance conducted by Leonard Bernstein; solo piano performed by Yvonne Loriod; ondes martenot performed by Ginette Martenot.

Turina, Joaquín (1882-1949): Spanish composer.

Union of Soviet Composers: Established in 1932—first in Moscow and Leningrad—for composers and musicologists. But in the 1930s, says Kiril Tomoff, more composers’ unions were established across the USSR: in Armenia (1932), Georgia (1932), Ukraine (1932), Azerbaidzhan (1943), Belorussia (1938), and Uzbekistan (1938). Thus, as Nicolas Slonimsky said on April 23, 1932, “when the RAPM, along with analogous organizations in the field of literature and art, was dissolved, it was regarded by Soviet musicians as the Emancipation Day.” Following on the heels of this “emancipation,” and “Socialist Realism,” Stalin implemented more and more social and cultural controls. Andrei Zhdanov, Speech at a General Assembly of Soviet Composers. February 17, 1948For more information, seeThe Creative Union: The Professional Organization of Soviet Composers, 1939–1953 by Kiril Tomoff.

Ustvolskaya, Galina (1919-2006): Russian composer. Student of Shostakovich at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music. Until the fall of the Soviet Union, much of her music remained unperformed (due to its “modernism”).

Vaiman, Mikhail (1926-1977): Soviet violinist. Student and later Professor at the Leningrad Conservatory of Music.

Vainberg, Moishe (1919-1996): Jewish, Polish born, Soviet pianist and composer. Arrested in 1953 in connection to the Doctor’s Plot. Released from prison when Stalin died.

Van Gogh, Vincent (1853-1890): Dutch painter. For more information, see, for example, Van Gogh: The Life by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith;Work mentioned in book: Starry Night.

Vingt regards sur l’Enfant Jésus (Messiaen): Cycle for solo piano. Composed 1944. Premiered by Yvonne Loriod. “Le baiser de l’Enfant-Jésus” as recorded by Haimovsky

Visions de l’Amen (Messiaen): Piece for 2 pianos. Composed 1945. Premiered by Yvonne Loriod and Olivier Messiaen.

Yevtushenko, Yevgeny (1930-2017): Russian writer. “Babi Yar” in English.

Zak, Yakov (1913-1976): Russian (Ukrainian) Pianist. Studied piano at the Odessa Conservatory with Maria Starkhova. Later, he studied with Heinrich Neuhaus in Moscow. He won First Prize at the International Fryderyk Chopin Piano Competition in 1937. From 1935, Zak taught at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory. His pupils included Nikolai Petrov, Evgeny Mogilevsky, and, of course, Gregory Haimovsky. In 1966, Yakov Zak was made People’s Artist of the USSR.

Zecchi, Carlo (1903-1984): Italian pianist.

Zhurnalist (Журналист): Soviet magazine.

Zinoviev, Grigory (1883-1936): Soviet politician and Bolshevik. Executed in 1936 alongside Lev Kamenev.

Zuckerman, Viktor (1903-1988): Russian music theorist and Professor at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

ERRATA

“… although Shostakovich was never a prisoner of war, he did live in Nazi occupied St. Petersburg during the war” (p. 100). St. Petersburg was “besieged”; not “occupied.”